Ashkanian was an Iranian tribe that during their governance on ancient Iran and neighboring countries, built one of the biggest empires of the world. They know themselves as the supporter of diverse cultures that had conquered. Discovered documents during centuries such as coins, and horn like cups and broken segments of clay are evidences indicating the culture and great civilization of Ashkanian. in archaeological diggings performed around ancient capital of Ashkanian in 1936, interesting objects such as clay pots, and copper made cylinders and iron objects were found, the objects whose application was unknown. Soon after this wonderful discovery, the scientists stated that Ashkanian used these objects as electrical batteries for creating metallic layers. Ashkanian as one the pioneers of electrical electroplating are now recognized. The authors in an article published in 1365 titled (development and changes in hypothesis of electrochemistry science) convey their views about electroplating art of Ashkanian as follows: “Ashkanian who conquered Beinonnahrain in 141B.C and governed there for several centuries, were the real specialists of gilt. Their golden coatings are so pure and glossy, yet we can create such coatings just by new methods of electrical electroplating.
These researchers published their findings and related experiments about the abilities of Ashkanian in battery electroplating in three articles titles: Ashkanian’s battery and Golsmith’s gilt.
What is electroplating and how it was developed?
The processes by which the surface of metallic or non metallic parts with layers of metal or non metal are processes for achieving a proper surface for industrial and ornamental- industrial applications and reducing the production costs are called electroplating.
As its name indicates, in this technique, retrieved metal in cathode leads to creation and development of plated layers. as it is mentioned in technical books in the field of industrial chemistry, it was 2500 years ago that some experiments were performed for placing metal particles on wood and leather and clothe and the first exploitation on metals and obtaining the result in 1680, i.e. more than three centuries ago, it was tested and examined in England by Dr. William Gilbert, the physician of royal court and in 1773, for the first time Wilhelm Pfanhawser known as Mr. Povi, processed the medals of royal court of England by electroplating that received popularity at that time; and then Max Schlouter, honored professor of galvano-technique established the first nickel and tin glossy electroplating and afterward the chemists around the world continued their studies and researches in this field, until a famous chemist named Franklin completed this method and presented it to industrial world of that time. now there are big and equipped laboratories in advanced countries where new methods have been investigated and the results of their experiments have been published everyday in industrial bulletins. Based on obtained information, history of this industry in Iran in an industrial form goes back to 70 years ago. This industry was opened by late Ahmad Shahab Lolagar in Khayyam Street in a small workshop just with opaque nickel water, and since 1941 other electroplating workshops named Manook, Rangin, Hedayat began their activities gradually.
Nowadays, this industry presents great services to the manufacturers and industries all over the world, such that if electroplating did not exist, so all workshops and factories and industries of countries would have been closed.